Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company determined that there is one reportable segment, with activities related to providing car wash services. The car wash locations are geographically diversified and have similar economic characteristics and nature of services. The Company's Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) is the Chief Executive Officer.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Estimates also affect the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the periods reported. Some of the significant estimates that the Company has made pertain to the determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities; estimates utilized to determine the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations and the related goodwill and intangibles; and certain assumptions used related to the evaluation of goodwill, intangibles, and property and equipment asset impairment. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company places its temporary cash investments with high credit quality financial institutions. At times, such investments may exceed federally insured limits; however, management does not believe the Company is exposed to any significant credit risk on counter party cash and cash equivalents.
At December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had $70 and $120, respectively, in restricted cash set aside for the funding of various maintenance expenses.
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable include amounts due for consumer credit card sales and other trade accounts receivable. Management determines the allowance for doubtful accounts and writes off trade receivables when deemed uncollectible on a specific customer identification basis. Recoveries of trade receivables previously written off are recorded when received. Accounts receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts of $76 and $70 at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was immaterial for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Other receivables consist primarily of payroll tax withholding and exercise proceeds receivables, construction receivables and insurance receivable from non-healthcare related insurance claims.
The Company records payroll tax withholding and exercise proceeds receivable for amounts due to the Company from a third-party broker for amounts used to cover tax liability and exercise proceeds resulting from employee exercises of share-based payment awards.
For certain build-to-suit lease arrangements, the Company is responsible for the construction of a lessor owned facility using our designs. As construction occurs, the Company will recognize a construction receivable on the Company's consolidated balance sheets due from the lessor. To the extent costs exceed the amount to be reimbursed by the lessor, the Company will consider such costs prepaid rent, which are added to the associated operating lease right of use asset once the lease commences.
The Company carries a broad range of insurance coverage, including general and business auto liability, commercial property, workers’ compensation, cyber risk, and general umbrella policies. The Company will record receivables from its non-healthcare insurance carriers related to these insurance claims, which are included in other receivables. The receivables are paid when the claim is finalized and the reserved amounts on these claims are expected to be paid within one year.
Inventory, net consists primarily of chemical washing solutions and is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the average cost method. The activity in the reserve for obsolescence accounts was immaterial for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Inventory for the periods presented is as follows:
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment purchased are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Assets acquired in business combinations are recorded at fair value. Depreciation and amortization are recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the property or related lease term. Amortization of assets under finance leases is included in depreciation expense. Estimated useful lives range from 10 to 40 years for buildings and leasehold improvements, and from 3 to 7 years for machinery and equipment.
Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of existing equipment are capitalized.
For items that are disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is recognized as (gain) loss on sale of assets, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company periodically reviews the carrying value of long-lived assets held and used for possible impairment when events and circumstances warrant such a review.
Other Intangible Assets, Net and Goodwill
The Company classifies intangible assets into three categories: (1) intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization, (2) intangible assets with indefinite lives not subject to amortization and (3) goodwill. The Company determines the useful lives of its identifiable intangible assets after considering the specific facts and circumstances related to each intangible asset. The Company considers the following factors when determining useful lives: the contractual term of any agreement related to the asset, the historical performance of the asset, the Company’s long-term strategy for using the asset, any laws or other local regulations which could impact the useful life of the asset, and other economic factors, including competition and specific market conditions.
Intangible assets that are deemed to have definite lives are amortized, primarily on a straight-line basis, over their useful lives, generally ranging from 2 to 10 years. When facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, management assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting profit and cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, the Company recognizes an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value. The Company uses a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions hypothetical marketplace participants would use.
The Company tests intangible assets determined to have indefinite useful lives, including trade names and trademarks, for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that assets might be impaired. The Company uses a variety of methodologies in conducting impairment assessments of indefinite-lived intangible assets, including, but not limited to, discounted cash flow models, which are based on the assumptions the Company believes hypothetical marketplace participants would use. For indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, if the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment of indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, rather than completing the impairment test. The Company must assess whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If the Company concludes that this is the case, it must perform the testing described above. Otherwise, the Company does not need to perform any further assessment. The Company completed its indefinite-life intangible asset impairment analysis as of October 31, 2022 and 2021 and concluded that it was not more likely than not that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable.
The Company evaluates its goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit-level on an annual basis (or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the related carrying amount may be impaired). The Company evaluates qualitative factors to determine if performing the quantitative impairment test is required. If it is determined that it is more likely than not, as defined in the guidance, that the carrying value is less than the fair value, the potential for goodwill impairment is evaluated and the amount of impairment loss, if any, is measured and recognized. If the Company determines that it is not more likely than not that the carrying value is less than the fair value, no further evaluation is performed. The Company completed its goodwill impairment test as of October 31, 2022 and 2021 and concluded that it is not more likely than not that the carrying value is less than the fair value, and therefore, no further evaluation was performed.
The Company allocated $16,191 of goodwill to the quick lube facilities disposed of on December 11, 2020. See Note 17 Dispositions for additional information.
Deferred Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability are presented in the consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the related liability except for debt issuance costs related to the Company’s Revolving Commitment arrangement. In the case of the line-of-credit arrangement, regardless of whether there are
any outstanding borrowings on the line-of-credit arrangement, related debt issuance costs are presented in Other assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
The direct costs associated with the funding of long-term debt are amortized to interest expense over the term of the applicable loan.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company has a pay fixed, receive variable interest rate swap contract (“Swap”) to manage its exposure to changes in interest rates. The Swap is recognized in the consolidated balance sheets at fair value. The Swap is a cash flow hedge and is recorded using hedge accounting, as such, changes in the fair value of the Swap are recorded in Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax until the hedged item is recognized in earnings. Amounts reported in Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax related to the Swap are reclassified to interest expense as interest payments are made on the Company’s variable-rate debt. The Swap matured on October 20, 2022.
The Company assesses, both at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivative used as a hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting the changes in the cash flow of the hedged item. If it is determined that the derivative is not highly effective as a hedge or ceases to be highly effective, the Company will discontinue hedge accounting prospectively. See Note 10 Fair Value Measurements and Note 11 Interest Rate Swap for additional information.
The Company determines if a contract contains a lease at inception. The Company’s material operating leases consist of car wash locations, warehouses and office space. U.S. GAAP requires that the Company’s leases be evaluated and classified as operating or finance leases for financial reporting purposes. The classification evaluation begins at the commencement date, and the lease term used in the evaluation includes the non-cancelable period for which the Company has the right to use the underlying asset, together with renewal option periods when the exercise of the renewal option is reasonably certain and failure to exercise such option would result in an economic penalty. Nearly all of the Company’s car wash and office space leases are classified as operating leases.
The Company disburses cash for leasehold improvements, furniture and fixtures and equipment to build out and equip the Company’s leased premises. Tenant improvement allowance incentives may be available to partially offset the cost of developing and opening the related car washes, pursuant to agreed-upon terms in the respective lease agreements. Tenant improvement allowances can take the form of cash payments upon the opening of the related car washes, full or partial credits against rents otherwise payable by the Company, or a combination thereof. All tenant improvement allowances received by the Company are recorded as a contra operating lease right of use asset and amortized over the term of the lease.
The lease term used for straight-line rent expense is calculated from the commencement date (the date the Company takes possession of the premises) through the lease termination date (including any options where exercise is reasonably certain and failure to exercise such option would result in an economic penalty). The initial lease term of the Company’s operating leases ranges from 6 to 50 years. The Company records rent expense on a straight-line basis beginning on the lease commencement date.
Maintenance, insurance and property tax expenses are generally accounted for on an accrual basis as variable lease costs. The Company recognizes variable lease cost for operating leases in the period when changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur. All operating lease rent expense is included in equipment and facilities or general and administrative expense on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company records a lease liability for its operating leases equal to the present value of future payments discounted at the estimated fully collateralized incremental borrowing rate (discount rate) corresponding with the lease term as the rate implicit in the Company’s leases is not readily determinable. The Company’s operating lease liability calculation is the total rent payable during the lease term, including rent escalations in which the amount of
future rent is certain or fixed on the straight-line basis over the term of the lease (including any rent holiday period beginning upon the Company’s possession of the premises, and any fixed payments stated in the lease). A corresponding operating lease asset is also recorded equaling the initial amount of the operating lease liability, plus any lease payments made to the lessor before or at the lease commencement date and any initial direct costs incurred, less any lease incentives received. The difference between the minimum rents paid and the straight-line rent is reflected within the associated operating lease right of use asset.
The Company’s lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. Additionally, the Company does not enter into lease transactions with related parties.
The Company makes judgments regarding the reasonably certain lease term for each car wash property lease, which can impact the classification and accounting for a lease as finance or operating and/or escalations in payments that are taken into consideration when calculating straight-line rent, and the term over which leasehold improvements for each car wash are amortized. These judgments may produce materially different amounts of depreciation, amortization and rent expense than would be reported if different assumed lease terms were used.
The Company uses a five-step model to recognize revenue from customer contracts under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606). The five-step model requires that the Company (i) identify the contract with the customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, including variable consideration to the extent that it is probable that a significant future reversal will not occur, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the respective performance obligations in the contract, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies the performance obligation.
The Company recognizes revenue in two main streams. First, the Company offers an Unlimited Wash Club ("UWC") program to its customers. The UWC program entitles the customer to unlimited washes for a monthly fee, cancelable at any time. The customer and the Company enter into a contract that falls under the definition of a customer contract under ASC 606. Customers are automatically charged on a credit or debit card on the same day of the month that they originally signed up. The Company’s performance obligations is to provide unlimited car wash services for a monthly fee. The UWC revenue is recognized ratably daily over the month in which it is earned and amounts unearned are recorded as deferred revenue on the consolidated balance sheets. Accounts receivable, net and deferred revenue as of January 1, 2020 were $5,125 and $21,258, respectively. All amounts recorded as deferred revenue at year end are recognized as revenue in the following year. Second, revenue from car wash and, prior to 2021, quick lube services are recognized at the point in time services are rendered and the customer pays with cash or credit. Revenues are net of sales tax, refunds and discounts applied as a reduction of revenue at the time of payment.
The following table summarizes the composition of the Company's net revenues for the periods presented:
The Company promotes and sells a limited number of prepaid products, which include discounted car wash packages and gift cards that are not material to the financial statements. The Company records the sale of these items as deferred revenue, which is reduced for estimated breakage, which is not material to the financial statements. Revenue is recognized based on the terms of the packages and when the prepaid packages or gift cards are redeemed by the customer.
Cost of Labor and Chemicals
Cost of labor and chemicals include labor costs associated with car wash employees, maintenance employees, warehouse employees, and chemicals and associated supplies. The related employee benefits for the aforementioned employees, such as taxes, insurance and workers compensation, are also included in the cost of labor and chemicals.
Other Store Operating Expenses
Other store operating expenses includes all other costs related to the operations of car wash and warehouse locations such as credit card fees, car damages, office and lobby supplies, information technology costs associated with the locations, telecommunications, advertising, non-healthcare related insurance, rent, repairs and maintenance related to held-for-use assets, utilities, property taxes, and depreciation on held-for-use assets at the car wash and warehouse locations.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses are expensed as incurred and include costs for advertising, onsite collateral, promotional events and sponsorships, and customer retention. Advertising costs totaled approximately $4,634, $4,868 and $3,222 for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively, and are recorded in other store operating expenses in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized differently in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the difference between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates.
The Company has adopted a more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of an uncertain tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax (benefit) provision in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company collects sales taxes from customers for taxable services provided and products sold and remits those collected sales and use taxes to the applicable state authorities on a monthly basis. The Company has adopted a policy of presenting such taxes on revenues on a net basis (excluded from revenues) in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Stock-Based Compensation Plans
Stock-based compensation represents the cost related to stock-based awards granted to employees. The Company measures stock-based compensation cost at grant date, based upon the estimated fair value of the award, and recognizes cost as expense using the tranche over the employee requisite service period. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options and stock purchase rights using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Restricted stock units are classified as equity and measured at the fair market value of the underlying stock at the grant date. Upon termination unvested time and performance-based options, stock-purchase rights, and restricted stock units are forfeited. The Company has made a policy election to estimate the number of stock-based compensation awards that are expected to vest to determine the amount of compensation expense recognized in earnings. Forfeiture estimates are revised if subsequent information indicates that the actual number of forfeitures is likely to differ from previous estimates.
The Company records deferred tax assets for awards that result in deductions in the Company’s income tax returns, based upon the amount of compensation cost recognized and the Company’s statutory tax rate. The tax effect of
differences between the compensation cost of an award recognized for financial reporting purposes and the deduction for an award for tax purposes is recognized as an income tax expense or benefit in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) in the period in which the tax deduction arises.
The Company evaluates each transaction under ASC 805, Business Combinations, including applying a screen test to evaluate if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets to determine whether a transaction is accounted for as an asset acquisition or business combination.
For all business acquisitions, the Company recognizes, separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, and liabilities assumed at their estimated acquisition-date fair values. The Company measures and recognizes goodwill as of the acquisition date as the excess of the aggregate of the fair value of consideration transferred over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
To the extent contingencies such as pre-acquisition environmental matters, contingent purchase price consideration, litigation, and related legal fees are resolved or settled during a reporting period after a business combination occurs, the effect of changes in such contingencies is included in results of operations in the periods in which the adjustments are determined. The Company recognizes third-party transaction-related costs as general and administrative in the period in which those costs are incurred.
If information about facts and circumstances existing as of the acquisition date is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which a business combination occurs, the Company reports provisional amounts for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. This period will not exceed one year from the acquisition date. Any material adjustments recognized during the measurement period are reflected prospectively in the consolidated financial statements of the subsequent period.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company discloses the fair value of its financial instruments based on the fair value hierarchy. The levels of the fair value hierarchy are described as follows:
Level 1—Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on unadjusted quoted market prices for identical assets and liabilities in an active market that the Company has the ability to access.
Level 2—Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on quoted prices in markets that are not active, or model inputs that are observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3—Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
The Company uses observable market data, when available, in making fair value measurements. When inputs used to measure fair value fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the level within which the fair value measurement is categorized is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. A contingent consideration liability related to one of the Company's 2021 acquisitions was measured at fair value (Level 3) on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2022 and 2021. See Note 10 Fair Value Measurements for additional information regarding the contingent consideration liability.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average shares outstanding for the period and includes the dilutive impact of potential new shares issuable upon vesting and exercise of stock options, vesting of restricted stock units, and stock purchase rights granted under an employee stock purchase plan. Potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net income (loss) per share if their effect is antidilutive. Reconciliations of the numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted net income (loss) per share calculations for the periods presented are as follows:
The following potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the computation of diluted net income (loss) per share for the periods presented because including them would have been antidilutive:
Deferred Offering Costs
The Company capitalizes certain legal, accounting, and other third-party fees that are directly related to the Company’s equity financings, including the IPO, until such financings are consummated. After consummation of an equity financing, these costs are then recorded as a reduction of the proceeds received as a result of the financing. Should a planned equity financing be abandoned, terminated, or significantly delayed, the deferred offering costs would be immediately written off to operating expenses. Upon the closing of the IPO in June 2021, all deferred offering costs in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets were reclassified from prepaid expenses and other current assets and recorded against the IPO proceeds as a reduction to additional paid-in capital. There were no deferred offering costs capitalized as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
Prior Period Reclassification
Certain prior period amounts related to other receivables within accounts receivable, net and prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. There was no change to prior period current or total assets. Certain prior period amounts related to accrued payroll and related expenses within other accrued expenses in the accompanying consolidated
financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. There was no change to prior period current or total liabilities.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU No. 2019-12”), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing a variety of exceptions within the framework of ASC 740. The Company early adopted ASU No. 2019-12 on April 1, 2021, and the amendments applicable to the Company were applied prospectively. The adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures for the year ended December 31, 2021.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848) (“ASU No. 2020-04”) and issued the following subsequent amendments to ASU No. 2020-04: ASU No. 2021-01. The new guidance is intended to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. Reference rate reform is necessary due to the phase out of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) at the end of 2021. The adoption of this guidance is optional and provides relief around modification and hedge accounting as it specifically arises from changing reference rates, in addition to optional expedients for cash flow hedges. The guidance will be effective from March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. The Company adopted ASU No. 2020-04 on April 1, 2021, and the adoption of this standard did not have an impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or disclosures. The Company continues to evaluate the impact of the guidance and may apply other elections as applicable as additional changes in the market occur.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU No. 2016-13”), which replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected credit loss model and requires a financial asset measured at amortized cost to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The guidance will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2023, and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted. The Company will adopt this new standard in the first quarter of 2023 and does not believe it will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805) – Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers (“ASU No. 2021-08”). The guidance improves the accounting for acquired revenue contracts with customers in a business combination by addressing diversity in practice and certain inconsistencies in application. Under current U.S. GAAP, an acquirer generally recognizes contract assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination at fair value on the acquisition date. The amendments in this update require that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with ASC Topic 606 as if it had originated the contracts. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that ASU No. 2021-08 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef